Configuring pyramid_swagger

The pyramid_swagger library is intended to require very little configuration to get up and running.

A few relevant settings for your Pyramid .ini file (and their default settings):

# Add the pyramid_swagger validation tween to your app (required)
pyramid.includes = pyramid_swagger

# `api_docs.json` for Swagger 1.2 and/or `swagger.json` for Swagger 2.0
# directory location.
# Default: api_docs/
pyramid_swagger.schema_directory = schemas/live/here

# For Swagger 2.0, defines the relative file path (from
# `schema_directory`) to get to the base swagger spec.
# Supports JSON or YAML.
# Default: swagger.json
pyramid_swagger.schema_file = swagger.json

# Versions of Swagger to support. When both Swagger 1.2 and 2.0 are
# supported, it is required for both schemas to define identical APIs.
# In this dual-support mode, requests are validated against the Swagger
# 2.0 schema only.
# Default: 2.0
# Supported versions: 1.2, 2.0
pyramid_swagger.swagger_versions = 2.0

# Check the correctness of Swagger spec files.
# Default: True
pyramid_swagger.enable_swagger_spec_validation = true

# Check request content against Swagger spec.
# Default: True
pyramid_swagger.enable_request_validation = true

# Check response content against Swagger spec.
# Default: True
pyramid_swagger.enable_response_validation = true

# Check path is declared in Swagger spec.
# If disabled and an appropriate Swagger schema cannot be
# found, then request and response validation is skipped.
# Default: True
pyramid_swagger.enable_path_validation = true

# Use Python classes instead of dicts to represent models in incoming
# requests.
# Default: False
pyramid_swagger.use_models = false

# Exclude certain endpoints from validation. Takes a list of regular
# expressions.
# Default: ^/static/? ^/api-docs/? ^/swagger.json
pyramid_swagger.exclude_paths = ^/static/? ^/api-docs/? ^/swagger.json

# Exclude pyramid routes from validation. Accepts a list of strings
pyramid_swagger.exclude_routes = catchall no-validation

# Path to contextmanager to handle request/response validation
# exceptions. This should be a dotted python name as per
# Default: None
pyramid_swagger.validation_context_path =

# Enable/disable automatic /api-doc endpoints to serve the swagger
# schemas (true by default)
pyramid_swagger.enable_api_doc_views = true

# Base path for api docs (empty by default)
# Examples:
#   - leave empty and get api doc with GET /swagger.yaml
#   - set to '/help' and get api doc with GET /help/swagger.yaml
pyramid_swagger.base_path_api_docs = ''

# Enable/disable generating the /api-doc endpoint from a resource
# listing template (false by default). See `generate_resource_listing`
# below for more details
pyramid_swagger.generate_resource_listing = false

# Enable/disable serving the dereferenced swagger schema in
# a single http call. This can be slow for larger schemas.
# Note: It is not suggested to use it with Python 2.6. Known issues with
#       os.path.relpath could affect the proper behaviour.
# Default: False
pyramid_swagger.dereference_served_schema = false

Note that, equivalently, you can add these settings during webapp configuration:

def main(global_config, **settings):
    # ...
    settings['pyramid_swagger.schema_directory'] = 'schemas/live/here/'
    settings['pyramid_swagger.enable_swagger_spec_validation'] = True
    # ...and so on with the other settings...
    config = Configurator(settings=settings)

user_formats (Swagger 2.0 only)

The option user_formats provides user defined formats which can be used for validations/format-conversions. This options can only be used via webapp configuration.

Sample usage:

def main(global_config, **settings):
    # ...
    settings['pyramid_swagger.user_formats'] = [user_format]

user_format used above is an instance of bravado_core.formatter.SwaggerFormat and can be defined like this:

import base64
from pyramid_swagger.tween import SwaggerFormat
user_format = SwaggerFormat(format='base64',
                            description='base64 conversions')

After defining this format, it can be used in the Swagger Spec definition like so:

    "name": "petId",
    "in": "path",
    "description": "ID of pet to return",
    "required": true,
    "type": "string",
    "format": "base64"


The type need not be string always. The feature also works for other primitive types like integer, boolean, etc. More details are in the Swagger Spec v2.0 Data Types.

There are two types of validations which happen for user-defined formats. The first one is the usual type checking which is similarly done for all the other values. The second check is done by the validate function (from the user_format you configured for this type) which is run on the serialised format. If the value doesn’t conform to the format, the validate function MUST raise an error and that error should be bravado_core.exception.SwaggerValidationError.

All the parameters to SwaggerFormat are mandatory. If you want any of the functions to behave as a no-op, assign them a value lambda x: x. On providing a user-format, the default marshal/unmarshal behavior associated with that primitive type gets overridden by the to_wire/to_python behavior registered with that user-format, respectively.


Formatting validation errors for API requests/responses to fit every possible swagger spec and response type is very complicated and will never cover every scenario. The validation_context_path option provides a way to change or format the response returned when pyramid_swagger validation fails.

Sample usage:

from pyramid_swagger import exceptions

class UserDefinedResponseError(Exception):

def validation_context(request, response=None):
    except exceptions.RequestValidationError as e:
        # Content type will be application/json instead of plain/text
        raise exceptions.RequestValidationError(json=[str(e)])

    except exceptions.ResponseValidationError as e:
        # Reraise as non-pyramid exception
        raise UserDefinedResponseError(str(e))

The errors that are raised from the validation_context are defined in pyramid_swagger.exceptions.


By default pyramid_swagger validation errors return content type plain/text

generate_resource_listing (Swagger 1.2 only)

With a large API (many Resource objects) the boilerplate apis field of the Resource Listing document can become painful to maintain. This setting provides a way to relieve that burden.

When the generate_resource_listing option is enabled pyramid_swagger will automatically generate the apis section of the swagger Resource Listing from the list of *.json files in the schema directory. The apis listing is generated by using the name of the file (without the extension) as the path.

To use this feature, create an api_docs.json file in the schema directory. This file may contain any relevant field from Resource Listing, but it must exclude the apis field. In many cases this api_docs.json will only contain a single key swaggerVersion: 1.2.


Generated Resource Listing documents will not have the optional description field.


Given a schema directory with the following files

├── api_docs.json
├── pet.json
├── store.json
└── user.json

Previously you might have created an api_docs.json that looked like this

    "swaggerVersion": "1.2",
    "apiVersion": "1.0",
    "apis": [
            "path": "/pet",
            "path": "/store",
            "path": "/user",

When generate_resource_listing is enabled, the api_docs.json should be similar, but with the apis section removed.

    "swaggerVersion": "1.2",
    "apiVersion": "1.0",

pyramid_swagger will generate a Resource Listing which is equivalent to the original api_docs.json with a full apis list.